This 2009 ECAR research study explores a multitude of strategies used by colleges and university information technology organizations to deliver the breadth of technologies and services required by their institutions. Findings illustrate that although total outsourcing of institutional technology organizations is rare, so is self-operation of all IT functions and services. The study focuses on “alternative sourcing,” which is defined as the range of options institutions have for providing technology services or operating technology functions aside from doing it themselves. This includes traditional outsourcing of all or part of the IT organization, accessing cloud services and externally managed applications, development environments, or hardware via the Internet, and use of contractors and consultants as a part of the IT organization. The study is informed by 372 responses to a survey of EDUCAUSE member institutions, interviews with 20 senior IT leaders, consultation with focus groups, and three case studies.